This is one of the most important passages about Grace in the New Testament; it lays out the problem, our problem and what God has done about it. And as you will see our problem came about through Adam’s disobedience. This passage shows what Jesus Christ has done and how it is applied to us by God’s Grace and how it is the Grace of God. This passage shows us how Christ’s death on the cross and his resurrection is the one and only answer for us as to the mess that Adam got the human race into. It shows how God triumphs through his Son Jesus Christ by his Grace and it shows how much greater God’s Grace is than sin and death or anything the devil can dish out. Therefore read it carefully and prayerfully, there is so much in this passage, we probably could study it the rest of our lives and not completely understand the vastness of it.

Because of this, just-as sin entered into the world through one man and death through sin and so death has gone forth to all men, in which all have sinned. For till the law sin was in the world, but sin is not charged to one’s account when
there is no law. But death reigned from Adam till Moses, even over those who did not sin in the likeness of the transgression of Adam, who is a pattern of the future one. But not like the trespass, so also is the gift. For if the many died by the trespass of the one, much more the grace of God and the gift by the grace of the one man, Jesus Christ, has abounded to the many. Now the gift is not through one who sinned; for indeed the judgment came from one to condemnation, but the gift came from many trespasses to an act of righteousness. For if, by the trespass of the one, death reigned through the one; much more they, who are receiving the abundance of the grace and of the gift of righteousness, will reign in life through the one, who is Jesus Christ. Then consequently, as through one trespass the judgment came to all men to condemnation; so through one act of righteousness the gift also came to all men to justification of life. For as through the one man’s disobedience the many were designated as sinners, so also through the obedience of the one the many will be designated as righteous. But the law entered in besides, that the trespass might increase, but where sin increased, grace over abounded; that, just-as sin reigned in death, so grace might also reign through righteousness to everlasting life through Jesus Christ our Lord. Romans 5:12-21 Modern Literal Version (MLV)

I will now attempt to retell and explain this all-encompassing passage of amazing Grace!

In the beginning, God created the heavens and the earth. (Genesis 1:1) The LORD God took the man and put him in the Garden of Eden to work it and keep it. And the LORD God commanded the man, saying, “You may surely eat of every tree of the garden, but of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil you shall not eat, for in the day that you eat of it you shall surely die.” (Genesis 2:15-17)There was no sin in the Garden of Eden. Adam and Eve were without sin. The serpent/satan said to the woman, “Did God actually say, ‘You shall not eat of any tree in the garden’?” And the woman said to the serpent, “We may eat of the fruit of the trees in the garden, but God said, ‘You shall not eat of the fruit of the tree that is in the midst of the garden, neither shall you touch it, lest you die.’” But the serpent said to the woman, “You will not surely die. For God knows that when you eat of it your eyes will be opened and you will be like God, knowing good and evil.” So when the woman saw that the tree was good for food, and that it was a delight to the eyes, and that the tree was to be desired to make one wise, she took of its fruit and ate, and she also gave some to her husband who was with her, and he ate. (Genesis 3:1-6) Satan deceived Eve and they ate of the fruit of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil. Adams one act of disobedience got him and us into this fallen and corrupt condition which all humans are in since we all are descendants of Adam. This is how sin and death came into the Garden of Eden. Because of Adams sin we are all dead in our sins and separated from God. On top of that we have made it a lot worse for ourselves by sinning more and more. Man has fallen from this amazing position of walking with God and being in fellowship with his Creator. We are all sinners and we all die because of our sins. For the wages of sin is death, (Romans 6:23) The soul who sins shall die. (Ezekiel 18:4&20) Sin causes death and death causes our separation from God to become eternal and permanent. So we are dead to God in sin and without hope in this world, slaves of sin and corruption, ignorant as to righteousness and all things godly. We are afraid to die and afraid to face our maker in this condition just like Adam was. But God who is rich in mercy, out of the great love with which he loved us, gave up his only Son Jesus Christ, the righteous for the unrighteous so that by the free gift of God’s Grace and the free gift of righteousness through Jesus Christ we are brought back to life, brought back into the same relationship that Adam had with God and to a new life in Christ by faith. Instead of the fear of death we have a real hope and its end eternal life and all by God’s Grace. Adams sinning caused all of us to die spiritually, die to God and the only thing awaiting us was/is eternal death at the judgement. Through Adam we all have become fallen and corrupt, therefore or because if it we are God’s enemies by nature. We just like Adam, who hid from God, want nothing to do with our creator. But God’s Grace changes all that. How can God’s Grace change this seemingly hopeless position we are in? How can God reconcile our situation without violating or disregarding his justice? The only answer and the perfect solution was to send his Son Jesus Christ into the world. Jesus Christ lived a perfect life under the law and he took on our sins, becoming the acceptable sacrifice, the Lamb of God who takes a way our sins and the sins of the whole world. Jesus Christ became the new Adam and the last Adam. Jesus Christ by his resurrection started a whole new race of those born of the Spirit and following in the footsteps of his life.
For it was fitting that he, for whom and by whom all things exist, in bringing many sons to glory, should make the founder of their salvation perfect through suffering. For he who sanctifies and those who are sanctified all have one source.
Since therefore the children share in flesh and blood, he himself likewise partook of the same things, that through death he might destroy the one who has the power of death, that is, the devil, and deliver all those who through fear of death were subject to lifelong slavery. Hebrews 2: 10&11/14&15
The corruption of the human race that satan caused when he got Adam and Eve to sin, God through his Son Jesus Christ fixed once and for all. For as through the one man’s disobedience the many were designated as sinners, so also through the obedience of the one the many will be designated as righteous. (Romans 5:18 MLV)

This passage is setting what Adam did and what God through his Son did side by side. We and every human being are in one of two positions;
1. In Adam, by nature, by birth - flesh only.
2. We were in Adam, but are now in Christ. We changed positions. We were translated from one kingdom to another.

      Adam and Christ (Romans 5:12-21)